Is leaf reported, in November 2018, an atypical movement of LGBTQIA+ couples in the country’s registry offices.
Between November and December of that year, 4,027 same-sex marriages were held, a record according to Arpen-Brasil (an association of the sector).
The race to the registry offices was the first thermometer of the uncertainty felt by the LGBTQIA+ population before Jair Bolsonaro (non-party) took office as president.
When same-sex marriage was won in the STF (Supreme Federal Court) in 2011, Bolsonaro said that family union was only possible between a man and a woman. The new president, however, did not present any bill in the Legislature to dissolve the civil ties between LGBTQIA+ people, and the right remains valid.
But experts on humanitarian issues, activists and representatives of civil organizations heard by the leaf say that LGBTQIA+ people have lost their time and voice over the two and a half years of the current government.
“We need a Stonewall 2.0, but this time, in Brazil”, says Michele Brea Soares, trans activist from Porto Alegre. The Stonewall Uprising, which took place in 1969 in New York City, gave rise to the International LGBTQIA+ Pride Day, celebrated this Monday (28).
Gays, lesbians and transvestites put an end to the attacks they suffered in police raids at a bar in the city, the Stonewall Inn. The group resisted for three days, and the movement became a milestone for more equal rights.
According to specialists, the Bolsonaro government dismantled public policies, halted investments and created a blackout in relation to the demands of the segment, which saw itself even more vulnerable in the Covid-19 pandemic.
Bolsonaro has already spread fake news that Brazilian schools had a “gay kit”; criticized the Enem (National High School Examination) because of a question about the dialect used between gays and transvestites; It threatened to veto LGBTQIA+-themed audiovisual projects at Ancine and intervened in the annulment of a specific entrance exam for transgender and intersex people at Unilab (University of International Integration of Afro-Brazilian Lusofonia).
In the current government, projects for the LGBTQIA+ population are discussed at the National Secretariat for Global Protection, which manages the Department of Policies for the Promotion of LGBT Rights. Both are under the umbrella of the Ministry of Women, Family and Human Rights headed by Evangelical pastor and lawyer Damares Alves.
In 2020, according to data obtained by Época magazine through the Access to Information Law, the LGBTQIA+ department in Damares had at least R$4.5 million budgeted, but nothing was spent until the middle of the first week of December of that year.
The minister who began her term saying that “a boy wears blue and a girl wears pink” told a meeting of the UN Human Rights Council this year that Brazil has reaffirmed its “position of defense of life since the conception”, according to the press release from the folder.
Damares mentioned initiatives for women, the elderly, indigenous peoples and isolated peoples of the Amazon at the international meeting, but did not point out any action related to LGBTQIA+ people.
Bruna Benevides, a researcher at Antra (National Association of Transvestites and Transsexuals), observes that health demands, such as the increase in outpatient clinics for hormone treatment and public hospitals accredited for sexual readjustment surgeries, have not advanced.
Benevides also cites the dismantling of the National Council for Combating Discrimination and Promotion of LGBT Rights, a collegiate created in 2001 to guide public policies in the area. “Out of 30 chairs, today there are only 6 left”, he says.
For Toni Reis, director of the National LGBTI Alliance, the current scenario and Bolsonaro’s homophobic speeches allowed “the conservatives to come out of the closet and create a hostile climate against the LGBTQIA+ population”.
Without looking at other identities, Brazil is considered the country that kills the most transgender people among the great nations, according to international rankings. And not even the coronavirus stopped this violence.
In 2020, there were 175 cases of murders among transgender people and transvestites in the country – an increase of 41% compared to the previous year. In the first four months of this year, another 56 violent deaths were counted by Antra.
The information gathered by the association refers to crimes published in the press because the country does not have a database on the problem, nor does it know how many and how LGBTQIA+ people live in its territory.
Transvestite Patrícia Borges, 31, was attacked by four people on Avenida Paulista while she was doing an electoral leaflet for Erika Hilton, a trans woman elected councilor in the city of São Paulo, in November last year.
She received blows from an iron stick, had her hair pulled, was bitten and cursed. “I felt like crap and, while I was being beaten, I heard: you are ugly. He’s a breast man, only”. Borges says he knows why he was beaten. “It’s a structural prejudice. Just the fact that I didn’t receive help from anyone who saw the aggression shows that,” he says.
She filed a police report at the 78th PD (Gardens) for injury and bodily harm. Only last Friday (25) —seven months after the fact — he received the news from his lawyer that the Civil Police opened an investigation to investigate the case.
Pedro Martinez, the transvestite’s lawyer, says he sweated his shirt to see the case investigated. “We really need to stay on top, as lawyers, to get things going because we see police resistance to taking these crimes [de transfobia] with the necessary speed.”
Despite the fact that the STF criminalized homophobia and transphobia, in 2019, victims face barriers from the police station to the judiciary to hold the aggressors accountable. ALL OUT, a global LGBTQIA+ advocacy organization, found at least 34 barriers in a recent survey.
These are problems linked to the lack of transparency of institutions, inadequate training of public agents who have difficulty in recognizing a hate crime, understanding of whether a person has really been a victim of LGBTphobia and even the pandemic.
“Victims face a race of obstacles that, together, become a new violence for those who seek justice”, says Leandro Ramos, director of ALL OUT for Latin America.
In the study, the entity reinforces two recommendations: the standardization of police reports among the states and the adequate training of public agents in LGBTQIA+ rights. “That way we will have data and qualified people giving the correct treatment to the problem”, points out Ramos.
For Councilwoman Erika Hilton (PSOL), a constant victim of transphobic attacks on the internet, a positive movement has taken place in Bolsonaro’s government. “There is such a denial of rights, of the cornering of our agendas that 30 trans people were elected precisely during his administration,” she says.
A leaf she requested an interview with Marina Reidel, the trans manager of the LGBT department at the Damares ministry, but she said she had no schedule available.
In response to the questions raised by activists in this article, the ministry claims that it has focused its efforts on expanding the employability of trans and transvestites and that in just one project it should benefit up to 3,500 people.
The folder also said that another strategy is to combat LGBTphobic violence, with the improvement of complaints collected by Dial 100, which will be improved.
Regarding the resources to the LGBTQIA+ population committed in 2020, the ministry stated that the value is R$ 3.3 million, of which only R$ 145, 2 thousand were paid. “The negotiations with the conventions for the formalization of the Development Terms and the release of the resources are still in progress”.
In relation to the LGBT Council, the ministry said that the collegiate is broader, although there are only three seats for civil society organizations, compared to 15 in previous years.
CHALLENGES AND ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE LGBTQIA+ POPULATION
From the 1950s onwards
Trans divas appear who become big stars in Brazil and Europe, such as Rogéria, Jane di Castro, Eloína and Fujika, among others
Beginning of the movement for LGBTQIA+ rights in Brazil. In Rio de Janeiro, the newspaper Lampião na Esquina, focused on community issues, is founded. In São Paulo, the Somos
There is the famous march against police chief José Wilson Richetti, who carried out police raids in downtown São Paulo against transvestites, gays and prostitutes under the pretext of social moralization
On August 19, 1983, a protest carried out by lesbians and supported by feminist groups ended the discrimination suffered at Ferro’s Bar, downtown São Paulo. The act became known as the “Brazilian Stonewall”
1980s and 1990s
Years of panic: HIV arrives in Brazil and wreaks havoc known as the “gay plague”. At the São Paulo State Department of Health, the first anti-AIDS center is organized. Darcy Penteado, Caio Fernando Abreu and Cazuza die from complications of the disease
The Federal Council of Medicine removes homosexuality from its list of diseases
WHO (World Health Organization) removes homosexuality from its list of mental disorders
In Piauí, Kátia Tapeti is elected the first trans councilor in the history of Brazilian politics
The first LGBTQIA+ Pride Parades are held in Curitiba and Rio
The city of São Paulo hosts its first LGBTQIA+ Parade. In 2006, the São Paulo march entered the Guinness Book as the biggest event of its kind
The government of São Paulo enacts Law 10,948 which penalizes discriminatory practices based on sexual orientation and gender identity
The sex reassignment process, the so-called “sex change” surgery from the male to the female phenotype is authorized by the Federal Council of Medicine. In 2008, it began to be offered by the SUS (Unified Health System)
STF (Supreme Federal Court) recognizes same-sex union, a milestone in the fight for LGBTQIA+ rights
STF decides that transsexuals and transgenders can change their civil registry names without the need for surgery
STF frames homophobia and transphobia in the racism crimes law until Congress creates its own legislation on the subject
STF declares unconstitutional the rules that prohibit LGBTQIA+ people from donating blood
Source: Book Devassos no Paraíso – João Silvério Trevisan. PURPOSE Publisher